Verb To Be 이다 in Korean
To study this grammar point, please make sure you understand the following:
Unlike English, Korean makes no distinction for the choice of verb to be (am, are, is) between first-person, second-person and third-person subjects. Only a single verb to be 이다 is used.
We only attach 이다 (or its modified forms) to nouns and noun phrases. Korean adjectives are verb-like and do not require 이다 for sentence construction.
Summary for Korean Verb To Be 이다 (Present, Past, Present Negative)
|Speech Level||Plain Form||Formal Polite||Informal Polite||Formal Casual||Informal Casual|
|is, am, are||이다||입니다||이에요/예요||인다||이야/야|
|is not, am not, are not||아니다||아닙니다||아니에요||아닌다||아니야|
Recall that the subject of a sentence can be omitted (if it is understood by the context), and verb is always at the end of a Korean sentence.
The Korean sentences above with different speech levels convey the same meanings. Notice that 책 (book) is a noun in the sentences.
The choice of 이에요/예요 and 이야/야 is based on Consonant-Vowel Sequences in Spoken Korean.
- If the noun ends with a vowel, use 예요 or 야.
- If the noun ends with a consonant, use 이에요 or 이야.
Related Grammar Points
- Types of Korean Verb and Adjective Conjugation
- Similarities and Differences Between Korean Verbs and Adjectives
- Word Stems of Korean Verbs and Adjectives
- Formal Polite Form of Korean Verbs and Adjectives
- Common Korean Verbs
- Past Tense of Korean Verbs and Adjectives
- Informal Polite Form of Korean Verbs and Adjectives
- Spacing in Written Korean